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By Dr. Stefano Casali
4. The antishock inserts and the general consumption of the shoe
Another important innovation introduced since the 1980s but developed and consolidated over the following decades is the widespread diffusion of shock-absorbing training shoes, which are usually positioned, with obviously different thicknesses, in the footwear midsole both in the anterior part under the metatarsal line that in the posterior one, in this case in the zone under the heel.
There is no doubt that the most stressed part of the body in the greatest number of sporting activities is the foot: this complex and wonderful structure defined by Leonardo as "an engineering masterpiece" consists of 26 bones, 19 muscles, 33 joints and 107 ligaments that interface the athlete with the external environment and is a source of amazing performances and at the same time the origin of many ailments that afflict him. According to a survey by the CONI Sports Science Institute, the foot alone is responsible for one third of all the problems that may affect the sportsman. Based on this, it is important that athletes are directed towards choosing a training shoe that really meets their needs; the new technologies applied to the construction of sports shoes have led to a very diversified offer capable of satisfying any type of request. Being aware of the existence of specific models for different body weights can allow athletes with different weight characteristics to take advantage of the appropriate shoe, thus performing their workouts in complete safety. Taking a look at the characteristics of the plantar support, perhaps by means of a baropodometric examination, enables the athlete to opt for a model of shoe suitable for his needs, directing him towards the choice of a shoe with neutral characteristics or equipped with an antipronation insert . But the most important aspect from a preventive point of view, however, is that linked to the consumption of footwear: too many times we see athletes in sports fields and gyms who train with worn-out shoes and now lacking their own functional characteristics; they are thus lacking the contribution of another technological innovation inserted in the sports shoe over the last few years, that consisting of shock-absorbing systems. These represent precious allies of the sportsman in the prevention of muscle-tendon and ligamentous suffering of the foot, of talalgias and other inflammatory phenomena that may occur in other districts of the musculoskeletal system. If it is true that the feet are the starting and arrival point of all the muscle chains, one can well understand their importance in the mechanics of every sporting gesture, a rational choice and a small investment for the periodic change of one's training shoes important elements can be identified in a preventative way, both for the occasional sportsman and for the professional athlete.
C.Vittori and coll . ; The speed races - FIDAL Center for studies and research, 1995.