What are Wrinkles

Wrinkles are folds or furrows, which tend to be very unpleasant, which form on the surface of skins that are dry and inelastic due to the inexorable passage of time.

In addition to the natural aging process, genetic and environmental factors contribute to the appearance of wrinkles. It is well known, in fact, that smoking, alcohol, stress, exposure to light radiation (both natural and artificial) or chemical agents (including aggressive detergents), as well as accentuated facial expressions and excesses in general, they are among the most faithful allies of skin aging.


As mentioned, the appearance of wrinkles is linked to both the inevitable aging that substantially depends on genetic factors (intrinsic aging), and external and environmental factors (extrinsic aging or environmental factors).

In most cases, these types of aging contribute together with the appearance of annoying blemishes such as wrinkles.

The main cause of the onset of wrinkles is to be found in the loss of skin structure. In fact, as time progresses and / or following exposure to certain environmental factors, skin cells decrease their activity and suffer damage and alterations that lead to the consequent loss of elasticity, hydration, firmness and compactness of the skin.

More in detail, following aging, the fibroblasts present at the level of the dermis gradually and inexorably diminish their activity, with a consequent reduction in the synthesis of elastic fibers, collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans (the fundamental components that help support and support the skin through the formation of a sort of scaffolding).

The elastic fibers and collagen already formed, on the other hand, become thinner and their structure alters, causing a further "collapse" of the skin. At the same time, over time there is a reduced production of sebum, which results in the thinning of the hydro-lipid film that covers the skin and the increase in skin dehydration.

Melanocytes also decrease their activity, producing lesser amounts of melanin and making the skin more sensitive to UV radiation, therefore to photoaging.

Photo aging

Photo aging can be considered as the classic example of extrinsic aging. In fact, it is caused by excessive and uncontrolled exposure to UV radiation (natural or artificial).

This type of radiation, in fact, favors the formation of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) in large quantities, favoring the onset of aging that evolves much faster than intrinsic aging.

It is well known, in fact, as the imperfections of the time, such as wrinkles and skin spots, appear in a decidedly early manner in individuals who for various reasons are found to be intensely exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

Types of Wrinkles

There are several types of wrinkles that can appear on the face following skin aging processes.

The main features of these types of imperfections of the time are illustrated below.

Expression wrinkles

The first type of wrinkles to enter the scene, often at a young age, is that of the so-called "expression lines". Little appreciated by the fair sex, but often appreciated on the male face, they are due to the repeated contraction of the superficial muscles, used - often unconsciously - to express their emotions.

The classic areas of appearance are the frontal and periocular areas (crow's feet). Sometimes these wrinkles can diminish or even regress spontaneously when the state of psychic reactivity that produced them ceases; more generally, however, they tend to increase little by little with the passage of time, favored by every new and inevitable contraction of mimic muscles. Not surprisingly, women who wanted to prolong their youth were once advised to avoid excessive manifestations of happiness or worries.

Sleep wrinkles

Sleep wrinkles are the direct consequence of taking particular positions during the night. Initially, they disappear shortly after getting up, but with time they tend to become permanent.

Gravitational wrinkles

Gravitational wrinkles are caused by the action of gravity on the skin, which favors the descent on the underlying tissues. The appearance of this type of wrinkle is favored by the atrophy of the subcutaneous adipose tissue and by the alterations of the bone structure that accompany aging, as well as by the loss of tone, compactness and elasticity typical of the progress of time.

Actinic wrinkles

Actinic wrinkles are caused mainly - but not exclusively - by exposure to ultraviolet radiation, therefore they represent the manifestation of the photo-aging described above. This particular type of wrinkle gives the skin an appearance that is called "parchment".

Medical and Aesthetic Treatments

Currently, there are numerous methods to combat wrinkles and delay their appearance as much as possible, both in the aesthetic field and in the medical field.

In this context, the research has developed in such a way as to counteract the problem of wrinkles by acting on all the factors that constitute its cause, thus leading to the formulation of cosmetic products and the development of aesthetic and surgical techniques capable of to contrast - more or less definitively - this type of imperfections.

For example, to counteract expression lines, science has been concerned with researching substances capable of limiting the muscular response to motor stimulation; it is the case, for example, of botulinum toxin, used for its ability to "paralyze" the muscles leaving them in a state of complete relaxation.

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Cosmetology, for its part, is constantly looking for similar substances but capable of reproducing this effect in a safer, sweeter and perfectly reversible way.

In addition to this category of active ingredients are cosmetics that attempt to solve the problem of expressive wrinkles at the root, giving the skin elasticity and lost hydration, stimulating cell renewal and making substances useful for the regeneration process (water, fatty bodies)., hyaluronic acid etc.).

In addition, anti-aging products provide the skin with large amounts of antioxidant agents (essential to counteract the action of free radicals) and nutrients, to provide the skin with all the substances it needs to defend itself against aging processes.

With regard to photo-aging, on the other hand, a primary role is played by prevention, which is why it is absolutely necessary to protect the skin using adequate sunscreens.

At the same time, medicine and cosmetic surgery attempt to solve the problem by proposing solutions that - although having higher costs and invasiveness - are generally more effective. Also in this case we can group the available treatments in the two main categories seen for cosmetics. On the one hand, different techniques are used (chemicals, various types of lasers, microcrystals and radio frequencies) to stimulate the growth of new cells, collagen fibers and elastin; on the other hand, the filler effect of direct injection into the wrinkles of substances such as collagen, hyaluronic acid and fatty bodies is exploited.

Cosmetic surgery, for its part, can intervene with small surgical procedures (mini-lifting, lifting), to remove excess skin, correct adiposities and the thickness of underlying tissues.


Video 1 - Anti-Wrinkle Creams

What are wrinkles and why are they formed? Changes in the skin with aging. Categories of cosmetic anti-wrinkle ingredients, with examples and mechanism of action. Effectiveness and limits of anti-wrinkle creams. Example of a complete and effective anti-wrinkle cream.

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Video 2 - Anti-wrinkle supplements and creams

What are Wrinkles? Why are they formed? What are the most effective cosmetic and nutraceutical ingredients with anti-aging / anti-wrinkle action? Example of an anti-age treatment Cream + Supplement

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