Category gynecology

vaginal pH
gynecology

vaginal pH

Maintaining a physiological vaginal pH (acid) is an important protective factor against bacterial infections of the internal genitalia. In childhood and old age, when estrogen levels are low, vaginal pH is around neutrality (6-7). In adolescence and adulthood, however, the environment becomes acidic (around 4

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gynecology

spermicides

What is spermicide? Spermicides are chemicals that are advertised as "contraceptives" that can immobilize or kill spermatozoa before they enter the uterus. Despite being notoriously unable to guarantee complete protection from unwanted pregnancies, spermicides continue to capture the attention of many young people who are inexperienced from the sexual point of view
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gynecology

Vulva

Generality The term vulva identifies the set of the external genital organs of the woman. In common parlance, the vulva is often called a vagina , but the two terms CANNOT be considered synonymous. The vagina, in fact, is an internal muscle-membranous channel, which unites the uterus with the vulva. The latter, in addition to the external opening of the vagina, houses the urethra meatus, the clitoris and some small glands, all delimited by two pairs of fleshy folds called vulvar lips
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gynecology

Remedies for Infertility

The term infertility is an adjective used to define a poor effectiveness in conception. This problem may affect only one of the two partners or both. Infertility is NOT synonymous with sterility. The latter is a permanent condition, objectively diagnosed and irreversible (for example due to the absence of the uterus, due to the presence of anti-spermatozoid antibodies, etc
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gynecology

Poor menstrual cycle - Scarce Menstruation by G. Bertelli

Generality The low menstrual cycle is a condition characterized by the reduction of menstruation , in terms of quantity and duration . The poor menstrual cycle recognizes various causes: in some cases, the condition is occasional and has no clinical significance; at other times, a flow with these characteristics occurs frequently
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gynecology

Ovulation Disorders and Ovulation Control

Symptoms If ovulatory symptoms do not occur or if you have irregular menstrual cycles, then ovulation may not occur every month. The main symptoms associated with ovulation disorders are: irregularity of the menstrual cycle absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) lengthening of the natural rhythm of the menstrual cycle (oligomenorrhea) excessive and sudden weight loss abnormal or excessive growth of hair on body and face galactorrhea (secretion of milk from the nipples) obesity acne and hirsutism (abnormal or excessive growth of hair on body and face) Oligo-ovulation and Anovulation Ovulation diso
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gynecology

The Vaginal Flora

Generality The vagina, as well as the oral cavity, the skin, the intestine and other parts of the human body, is populated by numerous microorganisms. However, it is not a passive and disadvantageous colonization, but a real system of protection against other potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This very important "ecosystem" is called vaginal bacterial flora
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gynecology

Bartholin's Glands - Functions and Disorders

Generality Bartolini's glands are two small oval structures, belonging to the external female genital apparatus . These glands are located in the posterolateral portion of the vaginal opening, at the level of the lower end of the skin folds (or lips) of the vulva. The function of Bartolini's glands is closely linked to sexual activity: in the excitement phase of the woman, these structures are responsible for the secretion of a clear and viscous liquid , which acts as a lubricant for the vaginal canal
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gynecology

Skene's glands: What are they? Functions and Disorders of G.Bertelli

Generality Skene's glands are two small structures belonging to the external female genital apparatus , located near the urethra meatus. Also called paraurethral glands , their function is mainly related to sexual activity: in the excitement phase of the woman, these structures contribute to the secretion of a clear and viscous liquid which, pouring into the vaginal vestibule, acts as a lubricant
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gynecology

Isthmocele of G.Bertelli

Generality The istmocele is a cicatricial pathology that results after a cesarean section . More precisely, it is a saccular formation , similar to a hernia or a diverticulum, which develops in the wall of the uterus , starting from the surgical wound that results from the incision made to facilitate the birth of a child
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